This article is an outline on marine biology .
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The marine biology is devoted to the study of marine organisms. Unlike other branches of biology defined by reference to a taxon is a natural environment that serves to define the scope of this discipline.
The economic interest is very important and plays on the operations of the sea, including fisheries and marine biodiversity , but also tourism , sports , medical , etc..
Summary trottinette freestyle [ hide ]
3 Some big names in marine biology
4 See also
5 no no hair removal Related Articles
5.2 External Links
Different biotopes ocean
Marine biology studies in many organisms, such as smaller plankton ( zooplankton and phytoplankton ), whose size can approach 0.02 micrometers but are the first primary producers of the sea, the great whales that can reach 33 meters in length, and large brown algae such as Macrocystis that reach 45 meters in length.
The habitats studied by marine biology include all habitats in relation to the sea, the very thin layer at the interface between water and air to abyssal depths of over 10 000 meters deep. These habitats are composed of coral reefs , forests of kelp , beaches, estuaries, etc..
Much of life on earth actually takes place in the oceans . What is the part that is unknown? As the sea covers 71% of the surface of our planet, because of their depth, the oceans represent a living space at least 300 times higher than in terrestrial habitats.
Main article: History of marine biology .
An ocean of life unknown
Early speculation about the origin of life have made the years 1840 to 1870 . The period from 1870 to 1900 saw the inauguration of several marine biology laboratories in France and abroad. Of large-scale oceanographic are conducted in parallel. The discovery of new forms of marine life research stimulates phylogenetic but also of comparative anatomy and of embryology .
The Roscoff laboratory is attached to the chair of zoology at the Sorbonne is run primarily by Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers (1821-1901) (who also founded the Laboratory of Banyuls ) and then by Yves Delage (1854-1920).
Biologists are involved to solve new challenges including the protection of environment and fisheries face overfishing and those posed by the pollution , the long-term impacts of immersions of waste and munitions , or by study the complexity of biodiversity marine organisms of very small ( nano-plankton , picoplankton ) and chemosynthetic ecosystems of the deep ocean (eg via DEEP OASES began in 2006 in France, followed by Daniel Desbruyères ).
Some big names in marine biology
Jacques-Yves Cousteau ( in 1910 – one thousand nine hundred ninety-seven ), French
Carl Chun ( in 1852 – 1914 ), German
Hirohito , ( 1901 – 1989 ), Japan
William Elford Leach ( 1790 – one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six ), UK
Ramon Margalef ( one thousand nine hundred nineteen – 2004 ), Spanish
Jean-Marie Peres ( 1,915 – 1 998 ), French
Adolf Portmann ( one thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven – one thousand nine hundred and eighty-two ), Switzerland
Michael Sars ( 1,809 – 1 869 ), Norway
Georg Sars ( one free iPhone ringtones thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven – one thousand nine hundred and twenty-seven ), Norwegian
You can also view a list of biographical notes on marine biologists .
Rising sea level
Marine Biological Station of Roscoff
Scapa Patrick (2005). History of marine biology. Ellipses Edition Marketing SA (Paris): 112 p. Crossfit Denver ISBN 2-7298-2691-2 .
Glémarec Michel, What is marine biology? , Vuibert , al. “inflections”, 2007, 188 pp. ( ISBN 9782909680-7-4-3 )
Roff JC, Taylor ME, Laughren J., 2003. “ Geophysical Approaches to the classification, delineation and monitoring of marine habitats and Their Communities . ” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13, pp. 77-90. Landscape Ecology 5, 2008.
Elizabeth K. Hinchey, Matthew C. Nicholson, Roman N. Zajac and Elizabeth A. Ireland “ Marine and coastal applications in landscape ecology . ” Landscape Ecology Volume 23, Supplement 1, 1-5, DOI: 10.1007/s10980-007-9141-3, Preface to a number entitled “Marine and coastal applications in landscape ecology”
Zesea website and blog on marine biology, the Mediterranean and in the world (photos, videos, articles, travel delay, etc …
Marevita illustration of fauna and flora of the French coasts of the Atlantic and the Channel.
Marine Life Information about the biology of marine animals. Reference site offering illustrated cards describing the main marine species in the Western Europe.
Jean-Louis Fischer, “ Creation and Functions of French maritime stations , “in The Journal for the History of CNRS , vol. 7, November 2002 [ full text ]
posted October 17, 2006
History of marine biology
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The marine biology , that is to say, the study of life in the seas and oceans, has contributed to the advancement of knowledge in many areas: course in zoology and biology, but also in embryology, in the field of evolution, ecology, etc.. This file is intended to recall the main steps of this history and guide to the major articles.
Summary [ hide ]
2 The XVIII massage Seattle th century
3 The XIX th century
3.1 Research popular
3.2 The development of marine biology at the XIX th century
3.3 The biological stations
3.4 The findings in the XIX th century
4 The XX th Century
5 Orientation bibliographic
5.1 Paper Publications
5.2 On the internet
Engraving of 1531.
Ocean life was interested in ancient times as evidenced by the publications of Aristotle , of Pliny or Aelian . It should be mentioned in particular the poem the Fishery of Corycos of Oppian , a Greek-Latin writer who lived in the ii th century . The author describes the techniques of his time fishing but also the species of fish caught, in a more or less fair.
During the Renaissance, the author is most important is perhaps Pierre Belon (v. 1517-1564), which publishes The natural history of strange marine fish, with real peincture Daulphin and description, and several of his species (1551) followed by Nature and diversity of fish, with their pourtraicts represent as close to the natural (1555). His definition of the word fish is very large compared to today: there together all the marine animals including whales or sea lions, shellfish or anemones, hippopotamus and sea otters (and even the chameleon ). Yet his comments, often based on his own observations, are very good and surpass those of his contemporaries.
Title page of the Ichographia (1685).
The xvii th century is marked by the work of John Ray (1627-1705) and Francis Willughby (1635-1672). These two men met at Cambridge and soon bind friendship. They travel together in Europe where they observe animals in their communities. The market development of large cities allows them to discover, on the shelves of the fishermen, many species new to them. John Ray released in 1686 De Historia Piscium from the notes of his friend Willughby. This is a milestone because the work significantly increase the number of known species and especially proposes a classification for fish to be operated by Peter Artedi (1705-1735).
The xviii th century
A hydra taken from the work of Trembley.
This century is marked by several major steps. Often considered the Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli (1658-1730) the founder of oceanography in 1725 with the publication of its physical history of the sea . It introduced him to the French Natural History Peyssonnel Jean André (1694 – 1759) which in 1726 will discover the animal nature of corals, but its discovery was first received with great skepticism before being confirmed in 1744 by the Geneva Abraham Trembley (1710-1784). His memory for use in the history of a type of freshwater polyp with arms shaped horns are discussed by René-Antoine Ferchault of Reaumur (1683-1757), Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) and Lazzaro Spallanzani ( 1729-1799): the controversy passionate scientific Europe.
The rise of the great voyages of exploration xviii th century (see article on this topic ) will lead to many important discoveries, but the life of the oceans, beyond the surface and shores, remains largely completely unknown . However, it should mention the very important work of Francois Peron (1775-1810) of the jellyfish. Peron and Charles Alexandre Lesueur (1778-1846) returned from their world tour from 1800 to 1804 with over 100,000 specimens, including many new species.
It Artedi Peter (1705-1735) that provides Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) the elements for classification of fish.
The century ends with the early work of Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and especially of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) that will provide the necessary clarifications to the understanding of the classification of invertebrates.
The xix th century
The study of ocean life is an opportunity to richly illustrated books. They include the work of Philip Henry Gosse (1810-1888) in Britain as well as Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) in Germany. This interest is mainly maintained by the popularity of aquariums, including in cities far from the sea. Many amateurs are involved in the dissemination of knowledge among the general public, as Sir John Graham Dalyell (1775-1851).
European seas are subject to the seminal work of Edward Forbes (1815-1854) as Robert electronic cigarette Alfred Cloyne Godwin-Austen (1808-1884) published posthumously under the title of The Natural History of European Seas (1859). Zoogeographical regions are first clearly described with the exception of the deepest areas described lifeless.
It’s Otto Friedrich Müller (1730-1784) who is responsible for the use of dredges for the study of biology Seabed (1799). It was then that commits a kind of race to search for evidence of life more and more away from the surface. Swedish Otto Martin Torell (1828-1900) is one of the pioneers: it conducts dredging on the coast of Spitsbergen at over 2200 meters. He brings a variety of invertebrates, it reached 2500 in Arctic waters. The laying of submarine cables for telephone connections in turn provides harvest information. But the skeletons of Foraminifera, Globigerina which are reported when the subject of controversy about their origin. Some, such as German Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876) and English Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), argue that these animals live on the surface before forex trading stratagies sinking to the ocean bottom after death.
Beyond the controversy over the lives of great depth, but also its nature which arouses great interest. Norwegian Georg Sars (1837-1927) discovered a crinoid that was thought extinct since the Mesozoic era. This leads to much speculation: Some assume that the deep act as refuge for species that have disappeared from areas closest to the surface.
The development of marine biology at the xix th century
In this climate that are launched huge expeditions of exploration of the seas. One of the most famous is the Challenger under the direction of Sir free ipad Charles Wyville Thomson (1830-1882). Besides thousands of new invertebrate species, the expedition made a very large number of measurements. It is the longest scientific voyage ever made, and denver accident lawyer use of specimens reported will mobilize scientists from many countries: Alexander Emanuel Agassiz (1835-1910) of the United States, Albert von Kolliker (1817-1905) in Switzerland Cato Peronius Paulus Hook (1851-1914) of Denmark, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) of Germany, Francis Buchanan White (1842-1894) of Great Britain, etc..
This expedition, and the interest of its results, will encourage many vocations (like that of Alexander Agassiz) and to engage many research programs. As for the great voyages of circumnavigation of the xviii th century , nations compete to organize study tours of the seabed: the German Government funds three voyages between 1874 and 1899 is also the case of Italy, the America, Russia, etc..
Albert I of Monaco.
Fans, at least the wealthiest of them, are no exception. We must mention here the important role of the “prince of the sea”, Albert I er of Monaco (1848-1922). It will, for thirty years, finance trips across the oceans of the globe. Ships that team are among the most modern of their day. The quality of their equipment attracts many French scientists: Louis Joubin (1861-1935), Louis Roule (1861-1942), Léon Vaillant (1834-1914), Jean Baptiste Francois Rene Koehler (1860-1931), etc.. To these, in addition German Karl Heinrich Andreas Brandt (1854-1931), Norwegian Erik Leonard Ekman (1883-1931) and Britain’s John Young Buchanan (1844-1925). The comments will be subject to 110 volumes with the publication ranges until 1955.
The biological stations
The laboratory of Roscoff.
To these floating laboratories, there are the stations of Marine Biology, the number will increase rapidly in the second half of the century. Laboratories studying the life of the edge of the sea have Orlando personal injury lawyer been reported from the xviii th century, but they are hardly occupied. Their true origin is to be found in the following century: in 1843, the Belgian Pierre-Joseph van Beneden (1809-1894) founded a laboratory at Ostend in 1859, French Victor Coste (1807-1873) established a laboratory at Concarneau; In 1869, French Antoine Fortune Marion (1846-1900) founded one of Marseille, the Russian Alexandr Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1840-1901) directs the laboratory created in Sebastopol, in 1872, French Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers (1821-1901) creates the Roscoff station, then nine years later, that of Banyuls-sur-Mer , etc..
The laboratory of Dohrn.
Anton Dohrn (1840-1909) is the source of one of the most prestigious laboratories in the xix th century : the Naples Zoological Station (1872). The choice of the city is not random. The city attracts many tourists, as Dohrn has the idea to create, in parallel to the station, an aquarium paying revenue to help finance the institution. The city offered him land on the sea and Dohrn built on his personal means, a laboratory and a very modern library. It has the bright idea to rent its facilities to research institutions worldwide. Therefore, the transition to the station of Naples is a usual step in the formation of most biologists of his time.
The findings in xix th century
The Zoological Institute of Kiel.
One area that benefits most of the research of xix th century is that of marine invertebrates, the number of known species increases dramatically. The study of embryo development (or embryogenesis) is used by Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) from 1866 to propose a descent of different animal phyla. There are many embryologists among marine biologists, such as French Yves Delage (1854-1920) who in 1892 released a study on the embryology of sponges. Naples Zoological Station will be the place of rendezvous of the main embryologists time: Alexandr Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1840-1901) to meet Elie Metchnikoff (1845-1916). Still in Naples, the German Theodor Boveri (1862-1915), Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch (1867-1941) and Curt Herbst (1866-1946) and American Charles Otis Whitman (1842-1910) and Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856-1939 ) are the source of new theories of embryological development.
Fishing scene in Italy.
Photo of Alfred Noack ca 1880.
It is from the study of benthos of the bay of Kiel and Helgoland as Karl August Möbius (1825-1908) defines the notion of biocoenosis. His work is the source of the benthic ecology. The study of marine biology has a practical implication: that the assessment of fish stocks. This is particularly the goal of research Victor Hensen (1835-1924) which defines the term plankton. His How to Lose Weight Fast studies have led to quantitative pelagic ecology. The Posidonia meadows are studied by Marion Antoine Fortune (1846-1900). German Friedrich Dahl (1856-1929) made the first quantitative benthos samples in 1893.
The century ends with organizing the first international meeting on fisheries exploitation (the first in Stockholm in 1899). These meetings result in 1902 the creation of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea .
The xx th century
Marine ecology is the subject of various works such as the Danish Carl Georg Johannes Petersen (1860-1928) on the ecology of benthic or French Paul Marsh Beauchamp (1883-1977) on the intertidal ecology. In 1924, French Taking Marcel (1893-1983), drawing, methods developed in the field of phytosociology, studies the rocky environments. Intertidal communities are studied by Edward Fischer-Piette (1899-1988). William Emerson Ritter (1856-1944), the laboratory ( Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) ) in Woods Hole , directs the School of pelagic ecology States of America.
Glémarec Michel (2007). What is marine biology? Marine biology in biological oceanography , Vuibert (Paris) and ADAPT (Paris), collection Inflections : 187 pp. ( ISBN 2-7117-7195-0 ) Published in a very interesting collection of history of science, Michel Glémarec , published a history of marine biology landmark.
Bériot Agnes (1962). Tall Ships around the world. The scientific voyages 1760-1850 , Editions du Pont Royal (Paris): 295 p.
Carpine Christian (2002). The practice of oceanography at the time of Prince Albert I er , Institute of Oceanography (Paris): 331 p. ( ISBN 2-77260-0225-0 )
Margaret B. Deacon (1997). 16550-1900 Scientists and the Sea: A cheap car insurance Study of Marine Science [2 e edition], Ashgate Publishing, Limited (Hampshire): 512 p. ( ISBN 0122078500 )
Eric L. Mills (1991). Biological Oceanography: An Early History, 1760-1960 , Cornell University Press (Ithaca): xvii + 378 pp. ( ISBN 0801423406 )
Jean-René Vanney (1993). The Mystery of the abyss. Stories and discoveries in the deep ocean , Fayard (Paris), collection time of Sciences : 522 pp. ( ISBN 2-213-03065-0 )
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Abundance of land and ocean primary producers of September 1997 in August 2000. Estimated as autotrophic biomass is a proxy for primary production potential. From the SeaWiFS Project, the NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE.
The primary productivity reflects the rate at which is formed per unit time, a given amount of organic matter from mineral and energy input. This is a flow expressed as mass of carbon assimilated per unit of time 1 . The production of organic matter is mainly due to photosynthesis (chemosynthesis being much less common). In an ecosystem , the primary productivity is achieved by primary producers also called autotrophs . This physical therapy Seattle is the first link in a food chain in a food web . Primary producers are mainly plants in terrestrial ecosystems and algae in aquatic ecosystems. Called primary production energy that is accumulated by the primary productivity . There are two subsets of primary production: gross primary production and net primary production.
Summary [ hide ]
A process of primary productivity
2 gross primary production and net primary production
3 Land Productivity
4 ocean productivity
4.1 Factors controlling ocean productivity
4.1.3 The Iron
5 Measurement Methods
6 See also
6.2 External Links
6.4 Notes and References
Processes of primary productivity
The primary productivity is the accumulation of chemical energy (primary production) in the form of organic matter. The energy source used to make this production is the light energy (in the case of photosynthesis), or energy from the oxidation of molecules such as inorganic hydrogen gas (eg the hydrogen sulfide , H 2 O) or methane (in the case of chemosynthesis). Whatever the source of energy, this energy source is used to synthesize molecules of complex organic compounds from simple inorganic such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and the water (H 2 O).
The two equations below are simplified representations of photosynthesis (top) and a form of chemosynthesis (below):
CO 2 Denver Divorce Attorney + H 2 O + light CH 2 O + O 2
CO 2 + O 2 + 4 H 2 O CH 2 O + 4 S 3 + H 2 O
In all cases, these processes lead to the formation of carbohydrates (CH 2 O) as glucose . These relatively simple molecules can then be used to synthesize more complex molecules such as proteins , complex carbohydrates, and lipids and nucleic acids , or be breathed to allow the cells to function (see cellular respiration ). Consumption of primary producers by organizations heterotrophs , such as animals , then transfers these organic molecules (and the energy stored in these molecules) to other parts of the food chain.
Gross primary production and net primary production
the gross primary production : total energy absorbed by primary producers (plants, algae …) by means of photosynthesis ;
the net primary production : amount of energy accumulated in the biomass of the plant (growth and reproduction).
Net primary production (NPP) corresponds to the energy stored by plants through photosynthesis, minus the energy used by Joann Fabrics coupons plants for respiration. In other words, the difference between gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production is the energy used in cellular respiration.
NPP = GPP – breathing
Primary productivity can be seen on the scale of a plant (eg a tree) or that of an ecosystem.
In the case of the ecosystem, it is called net primary production of the ecosystem.
This value is useful for ecologists in the sense that it determines the amount of energy available for other organisms ( detritivores , herbivores chiropractic marketing and other links in the food chain). It is also useful for activities that depend on soil productivity and other ecosystems (wetlands, marine, forest, etc.).. Biodiversity is an important factor in the productivity of a community and quality of ecosystem services that makes two .
In terrestrial ecosystems present, almost all production is performed by vascular plants, with a small contribution of algae and non-vascular plants such as bryophytes . In ancient times, before the appearance of vascular plants, the contribution of non-vascular plants were much more important. Productivity of terrestrial ecosystems depends on several factors. The key is the water content of soil, rainfall and temperature (the temperature co-varies with solar energy). These factors lead to a different distribution of plants that can differentiate the different biomes on earth.
Diatoms , phytoplankton group most widespread.
In contrast to aquatic ecosystems, the productivity of ocean ecosystems is mainly provided by the algae with a small contribution of vascular plants. Algae encompass a wide variety of organisms ranging from simple organisms unicellular to more complex organisms such as macroalgae . Vascular plants are restricted to the seagrass .
The majority of ocean productivity is ensured by the phytoplankton . It is estimated that in itself is responsible for 75% of oceanic primary production 3 , other autotrophs (seagrass and macroalgae) are often limited to small areas of the ocean: coastal areas where waters are shallow and enough light.
Factors controlling ocean productivity
Factors limiting primary production in the oceans are also very different from those limiting the primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Water availability is clearly a problem (although its salinity can be). In the same temperature, although it may affect the enzymes involved in photosynthesis, has a limited role much less important than in terrestrial ecosystems as the heat capacity of water reduces the temperature variations. In addition, salt water freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water and terrestrial ecosystems. Unlike light, the main energy source for photosynthesis, and nutrients, which are used in the construction of cellular components and are used for growth, have a key role.
The illuminated area of the ocean is called the photic zone (or euphotic zone). This is a relatively thin layer of water (10-100 m) near the surface where there is enough light for photosynthesis to happen. For practical reasons, the thickness of the photic zone is generally defined by the depth at which the light reaches 1% of its value at the surface. The light is attenuated in the water column by its absorption and scattering by the water itself, and the dissolved and particulate matter (including phytoplankton).
The ability to perform photosynthesis in the water column is determined by the interaction between the photic zone and the mixed layer. Turbulent mixing by the wind on the surface of the ocean homogenizes the water column vertically until the turbulence is dissipated (creation of such mixed layer). Over the mixed layer, the greater the average amount of light intercepted by phytoplankton is important. The depth of the mixed layer can vary: it may be shallower or deeper than the photic zone. When it is much deeper than the photic zone, phytoplankton spends much of his time in the dark which slowed its growth and ability to perform photosynthesis. The maximum depth of the mixed layer where growth and photosynthesis still take place efficiently is called critical depth. As long as there is sufficient available nutrients, net primary production continues even when the mixed layer is shallower than the critical depth 4 .
The extent of mixing of waters by the winds and the availability of light at the ocean surface are changed at different spatial and temporal scales. The most important changes are related to the cycle of seasons in response to change in the angle of incidence of light rays on the surface of the Earth. This is particularly true in temperate ecosystems, where primary productivity is strongly influenced by the incident light to the ocean surface (reduced in winter) and the intensity of mixing of the water column during the more important in winter Because of the storms. In the tropics, seasonality is less marked, the incident light is much less variable and the mixing of water occurs only sporadically in times of storm.
Average content of nitrate to surface waters. Data from the World Ocean Atlas 2005 .
The mixture of water also plays an important role in limiting primary production by nutrients . Inorganic nutrients such as nitrates , and nitrites , and phosphates and silicates are necessary for phytoplankton that use them for growth and for the proper functioning of the cellular machinery. The components of the photosynthetic apparatus , the enzymes and proteins are in fact rich in nitrogen (N) and iron (Fe). The phosphorus (P) (from phosphate) is essential for the growth of phytoplankton and its cell division, it is one of the main constituents of various biomolecules (such as nucleic acids and lipids that are essential components of such cell membranes ). He is also involved in the transfer of energy and metabolic cell (that is a component of ATP , the ADP and NADP + / NADPH ), 5 , 6 . The silicates are used by some diatoms to build their siliceous external skeleton. The phytoplankton cells are unable to synthesize these elements and must be purchased in their living environment in the form of inorganic nutrients. And limiting the availability of these items can lead to a decrease in photosynthesis and as a consequence of primary productivity.
In phytoplankton, the limitation in nitrogen (N) can affect a number of cellular processes such as photosynthesis and protein synthesis 7 . Photosynthesis can be affected by a reduction in collection efficiency of light energy due to a reduction in the amount of chlorophyll a, which contains nitrogen but also by reducing the efficiency of protein synthesis that constitute the photosynthetic apparatus.
Due to the fall of gravity of the particulate matter (such as plankton, feces or dead organisms), nutrients are constantly leaving the photic zone, and do not refuel by the mixture of water and the rise in deeper water . This situation gets worse in summer due to warming of surface waters and reduced winds increases vertical stratification and lead to a strong thermocline , as this makes it more difficult mixture of water and the rise in deeper waters rich in nutrients. In areas of upwelling , there is a high primary productivity due to the significant rise of deep waters rich in nutrients.
Another potentially limiting factor is the relatively recently discovered iron 8 . It is used as a cofactor (biochemistry) enzymes involved in processes such as nitrate reduction and nitrogen fixation. An important source of iron in the oceans comes from the dust of the desert which is transported by the winds. The Sahara plays a vital role in the fertilization of the oceans. In areas of the ocean that are remote deserts or that are not affected by the winds carrying dust (eg, South and North of the Pacific Ocean ), lack of iron can significantly limit the primary productivity . These areas are Plastic Containers known as HNLC areas for High Nutrients Low Chlorophyll in English (high nutrient, low chlorophyll content) because of the scarcity of iron limits phytoplankton growth and leads to excess nutrients. Some scientists have suggested the introduction of iron in these regions as a means of increasing primary productivity and the use of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to mitigate the effects of global warming 9 . However, tests of iron fertilization showed that the addition of iron can actually boost primary productivity, but its effects disappear very quickly. In addition, it is always very dangerous to artificially change the composition of natural ecosystems because we do not always realize the consequences this might have.
Methods of measurement
The methods for measuring primary production depends on the type of production to be measured (gross or net) and depending on the medium in question (terrestrial or aquatic). Gross production is always more difficult to measure than net production because it requires measuring the amount of energy devoted to breathing. The breathing is in fact an ongoing process that consumes some of the products of primary production (eg sugars) before being correctly measured. The study of primary production land is generally more difficult because part of this production is directed to underground tissues and organs more difficult to access. In the aquatic environment, the same problem with the ecosystem deep.